If you are ever hanging around cattle or sheep farmers, here’s some good jargon to know so you can understand the nuances of what they’re talking about.
General Farming Terms:
Carcass Weight – (aka “dressed weight”) – Weight of carcass after organs, head hooves, etc removed.
Live Weight – Weight of the live animal.
Paddock – Another word for field
Run – v. Raise, as in “we run 300 sheep”.
Angus – A breed of black cattle known for superior marbling. Originally from Scotland. More Info Here
Hereford – Like angus, this brown & white breed is known for better marbling. More Info Here
Bull – Uncastrated male
Cow – Female for reproduction
Dam – Breeding female
Heifer – Young cow that hasn’t been bred.
Put a Bull to – breed via natural (i.e. not artificial) insemination
Sire – Breeding bull
Steer – Castrated male
Yearling – An animal over 1 year of age. Also applied to horses.
Cervena – Venison brand program focusing only on tender (& generally boneless) cuts of venison from animals under three years of age.
Faun – Young deer
Hind – Female deer
New Zealand Red Deer – The primary species raised in New Zealand. Originally introduced for hunting.
Stag – Male deer
Ewe – Female sheep
Fattening Lambs – Lambs being finished before processing
Go to Ram – breed via natural (i.e. not artificial) insemination
Hogget – Juvenile sheep over 12 months
Lamb – n. Juvenile sheep aged 12 months or less
v.To give birth (to a lamb)
Lamb at Foot – Young un-weaned lambs following their mothers
Lambing Rate – % of replacement of ewes with lambs. 100% lambing rate means that in the herd, on average, ewes that are bred produce one lamb. Higher than 100% means that some ewes have twins. Many farmers in New Zealand are breeding for specific genetics that promote a higher % of twins.
Merino – A Spanish breed of sheep prized for its exceptionally fine wool. Now quickly becoming known for its unique meat characteristics like a milder flavor. More Info Here
Mutton – Meat from an adult sheep
Ram – Uncastrated male sheep
Romney – (aka Romney Marsh) – a English sheep breed that plays an important role in New Zealand’s wool & meat exports.
Sire Ram – breeding ram
Some NZ Terms for Meat Cuts:
Eye Fillet – Beef tenderloin
Cube Roll – Whole boneless ribeye roll
Scotch Fillet – Ribeye steak